Genesis 50:10 “Joseph observed a seven-day period of mourning for his father.”
Since then, most Hebrews have grieved the loss of a family member for seven days and speak of this period of mourning as “sitting shiva.”
Shiva שבעה = seven
Elijah’s Father’s Donkeys
- Abel, Beth Arbel, Penuel, Ham, Lo Debar, Rephaim, Pehel, Zaphan, Deir Alla, Zarethan, Mahanaim, Betonim, Jazer, Jogbehah, Adam, and Ramath Mizpeh
The Jabbok is the second largest tributary of the lower Jordan River, after the Yarmouk River.
After he left Harran, Jacob crossed the Jabbok on his way to Canaan. It leads west into the Sukkot Valley across from Shechem. The biblical cities of Zaretan and Adam lie at the mouth of this valley.
Here Jacob met Esau and struggled with the angel. The Jabbok River separated the territory of Reuben and Gad from Ammon.
Jabesh (YAH-besh יבש) was a town on the east bank of the Jordan River, overlooking the Yarmuk River from the top of one of the many green hills of Gilead.
People in Jabesh could see the city of Beth-shan on the west bank of the Jordan.
The King’s Highway was a trade route from Egypt across the Sinai Peninsula to Aqaba, north to Damascus and the Euphrates River.
The modern highways 35 and 15 follow this route across Jordan from Aqaba to Irbid.
- Shibboleth – pronounced shibboleth (שִׁבֹּלֶת) east of the river, but pronounced sibboleth (סִבֹּלֶת) west of the river.
- Read the story in the book of Judges, Chapters 11-12
- It happened in 1097 BC, about 223 years before Elijah first talked with King Ahab, about 874 BC
In 871 BC, the closest thing to a modern shirt was the כֻּתֹּנֶת keh-TOH-net. Most hung from neck to ankles and buttoned at the throat.
These drawings in an Egyptian tomb show people from the East — perhaps the Middle East — entering Egypt about 1900 BC. Notice how the outer garment serves as a wrap that leaves one shoulder and both arms free. The nearest Biblical contemporaries of these people were the earliest of Hebrews, such as Abraham.
This photo, from the Black Obelisk, shows a rare depiction of Hebrew clothing. King Jehu, or possibly Jehu’s ambassador, kneels at the feet of Shalmaneser III.
I use these photos by permission from NebMaatRa.
Wineskins made from the skin of a goat held 30 to 40 liters
Max per donkey = 150 lbs
- 30 liters weighs 66 lb.
- 40 liters weighs 88 lb.
So two skins would weigh from 132 – 198 lb.
Here’s a modern wineskin holding rack:
The Yarmuk River נהר הירמוך, Nahar HaYarmukh (sometimes spelled Yarmouk) runs in modern Jordan, Syria, and Israel from the north and the east.
The Yarmuk enters the Jordan River near the south end of the Sea of Galilee.
It is the largest tributary of the Jordan River.
- Years – שנים – pronounced shah-nim by people east of the Jordan River, but sah-nim by those west of the river.